Trustworthy data acts as the fuel for ensuring transparent traceability and precise decision-making in many applications, such as, supply chain, Internet of Things (IoT), Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), health-care, etc. However, disparate data repositories and untrustworthy data dissemination acts a barrier for efficient data management and secure data. The inception of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) solves such challenges by facilitating distributed, immutable, transparent, and fault-tolerant data aggregation across multiple entities (both physical and digital) . In this regard, a blockchain-based architecture is used as a potential solution to fulfill the requirements in a plethora of use-cases. For example, Fig. 1 shows a trade event during transportation and logistics of goods. However, current blockchain solutions lack many striking features such as scalability, offline data accessibility, fee-less transactions, and quantum-immunity that are among the desirable features in many applications. To adequately address these limitations, IOTA  brings a transformation in the third generation of DLT. Following a scalable and quantum-immune approach, it securely accelerates tracking and tracing of events even in the offline mode, and consequently enhance provenance data construction to identify erroneous data, operational disruptions, counterfeit products, etc.
- Data management (disparate data silos, data availability, traceability, etc.) and data security (confidentiality, integrity, access control, etc.) in a plethora of use cases (for instance, supply chains, IIoT, etc.)
- Blockchain for digital twins (DTs)
- Choosing among chain-structured blockchains or DAG-structured blockchains
- Scalability and quantum-resistance features in blockchains
- Trade-off between resource-constrained and performance-constrained environments: Deploying blockchain in IoT
- Identifying counterfeit products in the supply chain space
- Skepticism in blockchain technology
- V. Babich, G. Hilary, OM forum - distributed ledgers and operations: What operations management researchers should know about blockchain technology, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 22 (2) (2020) 223? 240. doi:10.1287/msom.2018.0752.
- S. Popov, The tangle. White paper., Available at: https://iota.org/IOTA_Whitepaper.pdf, 2016.